No. Operation above the maximum ratings will most likely result in breakdown or, at the very least, deterioration (i.e. hFE drop). Please refer to the SOA (Safe Operating Area) for single pulse operation. For, continuous pulse situations, calculation of the power and die temperature are required. Please refer to ROHM’s website for more information (e.g. derating curves).
A digital transistor is a bipolar transistor that integrates resistors.
¦Concerning internal resistor R1
• The role of R1 is to stabilize transistor operation by converting the input voltage to current.
Bipolar operation tends to become unstable if the input (Base) is connected directly to the output terminal of an IC for voltage control. Inserting a resistor at the Base stabilizes operation. Please note that the output current will vary exponentially based on changes to the input voltage, but will maintain a linear relationship with the input current.
Next we compare the difference between Voltage and Current control.
Voltage Control Input : Emitter-Base Voltage VEB
Current Control Input : Base Current IB
As we can see in the above graphs, Voltage Control results in an exponential change in the output current based on the input voltage, while Current Control exhibits a linear relationship between the input and output currents. For example, in the Current Control graph at right a doubling of the input current, from 40uA to 80uA, results in twice the output current, from 9mA to 18mA. However, in the Voltage Control graph we see that a small change in the input voltage, from 0.7V to 0.8V, results in an increase in the output current by 7 times, from 10mA to 70mA. This is not desirable, since even a little noise introduced in the input voltage can result in significant changes to the output current. Thus it is evident that current control via Base resistor that converts the voltage into current results in stable drive. ROHM offers digital transistors, which integrate a resistor at the Base, reducing the number of external components and mounting area.
¦Regarding internal resistor R2
• The role of R2 is to absorb leakage current and shunt it to ground in order to prevent malfunction.
Please note that a large input current may cause the transistor to turn ON, regardless of the presence of resistor R2.
All of the current flows to ground via R2, preventing TR power ON (and possible malfunction in the case of leakage current).
Part of the current flows through the Base, causing the transistor to turn ON (inadvertently in the case of leakage current).
Using ROHM’s digital transistor DTC114EKA as an example:
As forward current flows through E-B, approximately 0.7V exists (at 25C) between E and B. Since the internal resistor R2 is connected in parallel, the voltage across is identical. Therefore, the current flowing through R2 is calculated as follows: IR2 = 0.7V / 10kΩ = 70µA
When 5V is supplied to the Base at IN a voltage of 4.3V (5V-0.7V) exists across R1, resulting in a current of: IR1=4.3V / 10KΩ = 430µA
Therefore, 430µA-70µA=360µA flows through the Base of the transistor.
For stable operation the input voltage Vin must be adjusted in order to maintain an output current 10-20 times the Base current or lower. If sufficient output current cannot be obtained a digital transistor with lower R1 should be used.
At 25ºC the forward voltage (VF) across E-B is approximately 0.7V. However, please note that VF will decrease by about 2.2mV for each degree 1ºC above 25ºC. For example, at an ambient temperature of +50ºC the forward voltage is approximately: 0.7V-(50ºC-25ºC)×2.2mV=0.645V. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the effects of ambient temperature on VF. Please note that there is a voltage tolerance of ±0.1V. In the case of internal resistors R1 and R2 a tolerance of ±30% exists. Please calculate accordingly.
In order to determine the suitability of a transistor is to look at its particular SOA (Safe Operating Area). Ex: In the SOA graph below when VDS is 20Vand IDpeak 2A, making it suitable as long as Pw=100µs or less.
Yes. Pc (Collector power dissipation) must be derated based on the ambient temperature Ta.
Derating must be performed based on the SOA as well. Also, please note that the input voltage (VBE for bipolar and VI(on)/VI(off) for digital) and gain (hFE and G) are affected by the ambient temperature, making it important to verify the electrical characteristics vs. temperature curves (for MOSFETs as well).
In short, no. Transistors and diodes are considered 'articles', or manufactured items formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture which do not release or result in exposure to hazardous chemicals under normal conditions. As such they are exempted from requiring MSDS.
Although we have been using molded resins containing brominated flame retardants that comply with the RoHS Directive, in order to further reduce environmental impact we will continue to adopt halogen-free resin. ROHM defines halogen-free as (in homogeneous material): 1) Chlorine 900ppm or less 2) Bromine 900ppm or less 3) Total concentrations of chlorine and bromine 1500ppms or less 4) Antimony trioxide 1000ppms or less These specifications comply with the requirements of IEC61249 and are intended to satisfy the stringent environmental management demands of European manufacturers.
VI(ON)Min: The minimum input voltage required to turn the digital transistor ON. Therefore, when turning the transistor ON to OFF a voltage lower than this minimum value is required. VI(OFF)Max: The maximum input voltage that can maintain the OFF state in digital transistors. Therefore, when turning the transistor OFF to ON a voltage higher than this maximum value is required.