# What is a transistor?

### Understanding transistors

#### Understanding the principles of digital transistors

##### Selection Method

1) The IC/IB ratio needed in order to saturate the transistor is 20/1
2) Input resistor R1: ±30%, E-B resistor R2: R2/R1=±20%
3) VBE: 0.55V to 0.75V

The following equations are used for digital transistors
- The relationship of the DC current gain of digital transistors

GI: Digital transistor DC current gain
GI=Io/Iin
hfe=Ic/IB
Io= Ic , Iin= IB +IR2, IB=IC/hfe , IR2=VBE/R2
Voltage relationship: Vin=VR1+VBE

- The relationship with collector current:

∴ Ic= hfe×((Vin-VBE)/R1 )- (VBE/R2 )) ・・・(1)
The value of hfe mentioned here is not saturated at VCE=5V/IC=1mA.
When using as a switch the current ratio for saturationIC/IB=20/1 is required.
∴ Ic= 20×((Vin-VBE)/R1 )- (VBE/R2 ))・・・(2)
Replace the hfe in (1) with 20/1.

Calculations are carried out taking into account variations.
The worst-case values for R1 (+30% max.), R2 (-20% min.), and VBE (0.75V max) are utilized in equation (2). Select R1 and R2 of the digital transistor from the below equation in order to exceed the output current Iomax.

∴ Iomax≦20((Vin-0.75)/(1.3XR1)-0.75/(1.04XR2))

##### The difference between Io and Ic

Ic: The maximum theoretical current that can flow through a transistor
Io: The maximum current that can be used for a digital transistor

Notes
The DTA/C series of digital transistors support 100mA of current flow.
For these products Ic is defined as 100mA. Connecting resistors R1 and R2 makes it a digital transistor.
Ic=100mA operation requires a high input voltage Vin to ensure sufficient base current IB.
However, the maximum input voltage Vin(max) is defined as the power tolerance (package power) of the input resistor R1, based on the absolute maximum ratings. Therefore, since this rating may be exceeded when Ic=100mA, Io is defined as the current value that can flow through the digital transistors without exceeding Vin(max).
As you may know the absolute maximum ratings stipulate that 2 or more parameters cannot be simultaneously supplied, so there is no problem with a notation using only Ic. However, Io may also be listed in accordance with actual usage conditions.
From the above, after taking into account circuit design, Io can be considered the absolute maximum rating.

##### The difference between GI and hFE

hFE: DC current gain in general transistors
GI: DC current gain in digital transistors

Notes
GI and hFE both represent emitter-common DC current gain.
Digital resistors are simply conventional resistors that incorporate 2 internal resistors.
Here since the DC current gain = output current/input current the gain is not reduced by the input resistor R1. Therefore, for types that integrate only an input resistor R1, gain is represented by hFE, and will be equivalent to the hFE of configured transistors.
However, when connecting a resistor R2 between E-B the input current is diverted to the current flowing through R2.
As a result amplification is reduced. This value is represented as GI.

##### The difference between VI(on) and VI(off)

It is easy to mistakeVI(on) with VI(off) and vice versa.
VI(on): The minimum voltage required to turn the transistor ON.

Common misunderstanding:
: The input voltage increases constantly from 0V
: After a short time the voltage will reach 1.8V, turning the digital transistor ON
: Since this voltage is below the 3V listed in the specifications, it is considered no good.

Actual operation:
: First, increase the input voltage Vin to a level sufficient to turn ON the transistor (i.e. 10V)
: Gradually lower the voltage to the level noted in the specifications (i.e. 3V). If the transistor remains ON it is considered good.
: Continue to decrease the voltage supplied to the base until the transistor turns OFF. Since this point is below 3V, the transistor works.

##### Digital transistor temperature characteristics

VBE, hFE, R1, and R1 will vary depending on the ambient temperature.

hFE will change by: 0.5%/ºC (approx.)
VBE will vary by around -2mV/ºC (within the range of -1.8 to -2.4mV/ºC)

R1 will change based on the graph below.

##### Output Voltage - Output Current characteristics in the low-current region

The output voltage-output current characteristics of digital transistors are measured using the following method.
Therefore, Io (low current region) will not flow to the base of the transistor.
This will cause the output voltage Vo (VCE(sat)] to rise in the low current region.

For DTC114EKA measurement is performed using Io/Ii=20/1.
Ii=IB+IR2 from (IR2=VBE/10k=0.65V/10k=65uA)
If IB=Ii-IR2=Ii-65uA (if Ii becomes less than 65uA) IB will not flow, and Vo [VCE(sat)] will increase.
If this happens Vo cannot be measured in the low current region.

##### Digital transistor switching operation

1.Transistor operation
For NPN transistor operation, voltage is supplied as in Diagram 1.
In this circuit, forward voltage is supplied between the base (B) and emitter (E), resulting in current flow through the base.
In other words, the base is infused with holes.
When this happens the free electrons in the emitter (E) are drawn towards the base. However, since the base region is extremely narrow, free electrons flow through the base region to the collector due to voltage bias from the collector. Because of this current flows from the collector to the emitter.

2.Switching operation
Transistor operation consists of both amplification and switching.
During amplification, Ic, equivalent to the amount of hFE times the base current, flows. The output current in the active region can be obtained by continuously controlling the collector current based on the input signal.

Switching operation entails saturation conditions while ON (decreased collector-emitter saturation voltage). In this saturation region there is an excessive number of holes, which then exit through the base terminal from the base region. Collector current flows until all of the + holes exit from the base region. The time is takes for this to occur is referred to as tstg (OFF time).

The quicker the holes exit the base region the shorter the OFF time.

In digital transistors R1 and R2 act in series as a path for the holes to exit the base region while the transistor is OFF. R2 should be made as small as possible (with a given fixed R1) in order to minimize OFF time.

##### Digital Transistor Terminology
• VI(on)min: Minimum Input ON Voltage
Forward voltage Vo applied between the OUT and GND pins - the minimum input voltage required for output current (Io) flow. Or the minimim input voltage needed to turn ON a digital transistor.
Therefore, since a voltage lower than this minimum input voltage is required to switch from ON to OFF, the value for actual products will be less than this.
• VI(off)max: Maximum Input OFF Voltage
The maximum input voltage obtained between the IN and GND pins while supplying supply voltage Vcc and output current Io between the OUT and GND pins. In other words, this is the maximum input voltage that will maintain an OFF condition.
However, since a voltage greater than this is required when turning the transistor from OFF to ON, the value for actual products will be higher.
• VO(on): Output Voltage
The output terminal voltage under any input conditions that do not exceed the maximum ratings. The condition where the IN/OUT junctions are forward biased and the output voltage is reduced when sufficient input current flows through the GND amplification circuit. Measured as an integer fraction of Ii (normally 10-20) in Vo, Io.
• II(max): Maximum Input Current
The maximum permissible input current that can continuously flow to the IN pin (while forward voltage Vi is supplied between the IN and GND pins.
• GI：DC Current Gain
The Io/Ii ratio stipulated in Vo, Io.
• R1: Input Resistance
The resistance connected between the IN terminal and transistor Base, with a permissible range of ±30%. This value will vary depending on the temperature.
• R2/R1: Resistance Ratio
The ratio of the internal Base-Emitter resistor to the input resistor.