LDO, short for Low Dropout Regulator, is a class of regulators featuring an input-output voltage difference smaller than conventional 3-terminal fixed-output types, resulting in lower heat generation and greater efficiency.
TSD is an abbreviation for Thermal Shut Down, a type of temperature protection circuit that prevents IC damage due to excessive thermal stress by turning OFF the circuit once the chip temperature Tj exceeds a predetermined value. Operation is resumed once Tj decreases to within the normal range. A hysteresis of 20ºC is built in.
Current not exceeding the absolute maximum ratings will not damage the IC. However, operation above or near the maximum value specified may trigger the overcurrent protection circuit, leading to operation shutdown. Please note that the current can fluctuate depending on external factors, including ambient temperature.
Multiple protection circuits are built in (TSD, OCP, OVP) in order to prevent IC and possible peripheral circuit damage due to various factors. Each protection circuit was designed to enable normal operation once particular conditions were met. Please note that the TSD (Temperature Shut Down) circuit features hysteresis.
Yes, although it is strongly advised that precautions be taken to prevent this situation from occurring, by placing a diode between the input and output terminals or in series input lines for backcurrent protection, for example. However, it has been confirmed that the IC will not be damaged by the discharge from the output capacitor, as long as the capacitance is less than 1000µF.